The Paris Agreement is an international treaty aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The agreement is supported by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and came into force on 4 November 2016. According to the UNFCCC, the agreement aims to limit temperature rises in the 21st century to less than 2 degrees Celsius and to encourage initiatives that reduce the rise to 1.5 degrees Celsius or less. While the agreement has been welcomed by many, including French President Francois Hollande and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, criticism has also emerged. James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and climate change expert, expressed anger that most of the agreement is made up of “promises” or goals, not firm commitments.  He called the Paris talks a fraud with “nothing, only promises” and believed that only a generalized tax on CO2 emissions, which is not part of the Paris agreement, would force CO2 emissions down fast enough to avoid the worst effects of global warming.  Every five years, governments are accountable for their progress and plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Paris agreement also requires developed countries to send $100 billion a year to developing countries from 2020, when the agreement comes into force. This amount will increase over time.
At the 2011 UN Climate Change Conference, the Durban Platform (and the ad hoc working group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action) were created to negotiate a legal instrument to mitigate climate change from 2020. The resulting agreement is expected to be adopted in 2015.  The negotiators of the agreement stated that the INDCs presented at the time of the Paris conference were insufficient and found that “the estimates of aggregate greenhouse gas emissions in 2025 and 2030, resulting from planned contributions at the national level, do not fall into scenarios at 2oC at the lowest cost, but lead to a projected level of 55 gigatonnes in 2030.” and acknowledges that “much greater efforts to reduce emissions will be needed to keep the global average temperature rise to less than 2 degrees Celsius, by reducing emissions to 40 gigatonnes or 1.5 degrees Celsius.”  [Clarifications needed] To contribute to the goals of the agreement, countries have presented comprehensive national plans to combat climate change (contributions determined at national level. NDC). These are not yet sufficient to meet the agreed temperature targets, but the agreement points to the way forward for further measures.