The Boston Harbor re-cultivation project, which began in the 1980s, has become the center of the debate over the legality of ASAs.   When the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority decided to use a PLA for the project that only requires union labor, the Associated Builders and Contractors of Massachusetts/Rhode Island, Inc. challenged their legality, arguing that the use of a PLA by the National Labor Relations Act was prohibited.  In 1990, the First Circuit Federal Appeals Court ruled that the Boston Harbor PLA had violated federal labor law because of its union work requirement.  The bridge was built under a family support employment contract (PLA). Project employment contracts (PDOs) are pre-employment collective agreements that define the working conditions of one or more construction projects. They are often used by municipalities, contractors and trade unions to ensure the smooth running of projects. The $240 million project was completed on time and on budget. The project has also created hundreds of well-paying local jobs and offered a multitude of benefits for affected workers, businesses and communities. Two projects are now before the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies in order to preserve open competition and neutrality of the federal government with respect to the labour relations of federal government contractors in federally and federally funded construction projects. These projects are H.R.
735 and P. 119: “Government Neutrality in Contracting Act”. Both projects are favoured by AGC and other construction organizations. PDOs are licensed under the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA), 29 U.S.C. §§ 151-169. § 8(e) and (f) of the NLRA, 29 U.S.C§ 158 (e) and (f) make specific exceptions to other NLRA requirements to allow employers to enter into pre-employment contracts with construction industry unions.  On October 23, 1992, while the Boston Harbor case was still pending, President George H. W. This decision has led to an increased use of PDOs in public construction projects in the United States.   Studies have shown that PDOs offer benefits to project owners and local communities and do not penalize contractors and non-unionized employees. A 2009 study by Fred B.
Kotler, J.D., associate director of the Cornell University School of Industrial and Labor Relations, showed that there was no evidence that PRU discriminates against employers and workers, restricts the pool of bidders, and increases construction costs.  In a 2009 report by Dale Belman of Michigan State University; Matthew M. Bodah of the University of Rhode Island and Peter Philips of the University of Utah said that community agreements bring benefits instead of increasing costs. . . .